Understanding the Chicago T & R Reference System

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, the humanities style (notesand bibliography) and the author date system.

From the Chicago Manual:

Current usage avoids the use of Ibid. and Op. cit. Simply repeat the citation: (Smith 2002).

Sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date ofpublication. The short citations are amplified in the Bibliography, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Below are some common examples. Each example is given in author-date style (an in-text citation [T],followed by a bibliographic entry [R]). For numerous specific examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition.

Online sources that are analogous to print sources (such as articles published in online journals, magazines, or newspapers) should be cited similarly to their print counterparts but with the additionof a URL. Some publishers or disciplines may also require an access date. For online or other electronic sources that do not have a direct print counterpart (such as an institutional Web site or a Weblog), give as much information as you can in addition to the URL.

Examples of text citations and bibliographic references:

Book.

One author
T: (Doniger 1999, 65)
R: Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Two authors
T: (Cowlishaw and Dunbar 2000, 104–7)
R: Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. 2000. Primate conservation biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Four or more authors
T: (Laumann et al. 1994, 262)
R: Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. 1994. The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
T: (Lattimore 1951, 91–92)
R: Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
T: (Bonnefoy 1995, 22)
R: Bonnefoy, Yves. 1995. New and selected poems. Ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

Chapter or other part of a book
T: (Wiese 2006, 101–2)
R: Wiese, Andrew. 2006. “The house I live in”: Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in thepostwar United States. In The new suburban history, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago

Press.

Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)
T: (Cicero 1986, 35)
R: Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. Handbook on canvassing for the consulship. In Rome: Late republic and principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago readings inwestern civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
T: (Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)
R: Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format, you should cite the version you consulted, but you may also list the other formats, as in the second example below. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the first example below.
T: (Kurland and Lerner 1987)
R: Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.http://presspubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Article.

Journal article
Article in a print journal
T: (Smith 1998, 639)
R: Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639–40.

Article in an online journal
If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the fourth example below.
T: (Hlatky et al. 2002)
R: Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Qualityof-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy:
Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial.

Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

Popular magazine article

T: (Martin 2002, 84)
R: Martin, Steve. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. New Yorker, May 6.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in a New York Timesarticle on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note or an in-text citation, and they are commonly omittedfrom a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the moreformal versions of the citations.

T: (Niederkorn 2002)
R: Niederkorn, William S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition.

Book review
T: (Gorman 2002, 16)
R: Gorman, James. 2002. Endangered species. Review of The last American man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2.

Thesis or dissertation
T: (Amundin 1991, 22–29, 35)
R: Amundin, M. 1991. Click repetition rate patterns in communicative sounds from the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. PhD diss., StockholmUniversity.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference
T: (Doyle 2002)
R: Doyle, Brian. 2002. Howling like dogs: Metaphorical language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at theannual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, June 19–22, in Berlin, Germany.

Electronic Media.

Web site
Web sites may be cited in running text (“On its Web site, the Evanston Public Library Board of Trusteesstates . . .”) instead of in an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If anaccess date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of thecitation, as in the second example below.
T: (Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees)
R: Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library.
http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.

E-mail message
E-mail messages may be cited in running text (“In an e-mail message to the author on October 31, 2005, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in a note or an in-text citation, and they are rarely listed in abibliography or reference list. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.
N: John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2005.

Item in online database
Journal articles published in online databases should be cited as shown above, under “Article in an online journal.” If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the first example below.
T: (Pliny the Elder, Perseus Digital Library)

Citing Jung’s Collected Works.

Citation format: (Jung 1942/1968, CW 13, ¶147)

(the date of original publication/date of edition being used, CW volume number, ¶ number)

If more than one paragraph in sequence is cited, it should be indicated by a double ¶¶ symbol, as in: (Jung 1942/1968, CW 13, 147-148), but if two separate paragraphs are relevant:

(Jung 1942/1968, CW 13, 1147, 1149)

Hint: Mac keyboard shortcut for is Option+7

Bibliography format: When an article references Jung’s Collected Works, a standard note regarding the bibliographic information of the English and American editions is included by the copy editor at the beginning of the bibliography.

You will still need to include some basic information within the bibliography:

Jung, C.G. original date of publication/date of the edition that is being cited. “Title of the essay.” Title of the volume. CW #.

Example: Jung, C.G. 1942/1968. Paracelsus as a spiritual phenomenon. Alchemical studies. CW 13.

If one essay fills the entire volume, only the volume name is required; for example, Psychological types.

Please do not quote Jung from reprinted topic collections but from the Collected Works, unless the work is a newer translation or not in the Collected Works, such as The Visions Seminars, The Red Book, and The Psychology of Kundalini Yoga.

At the time of the final acceptance of your article with all necessary revisions, LeeAnn Pickrell, Managing Editor and Copy Editor, will send you a copy of the Author’s Agreement to sign.